Pennalism to Pentreath

Pennalism Fagging, bullying, petty persecution. The pennals or freshmen of the Protestant universities were the fags of the elder students, called schorists. Abolished at the close of the seventeenth century. (See above.)

Pennant The common legend is, that when Tromp, the Dutch admiral, appeared on our coast, he hoisted a broom on his ship, to signify his intention of sweeping the ships of England from the sea; and that the English admiral hoisted a horsewhip to indicate his intention of drubbing the Dutch. According to this legend, the pennant symbolises a horsewhip, and it is not unfrequently called “the whip.”

Penniless (The). The Italians called Maximilian I. of Germany Pochi Danari. (1459, 1493-1519.)

Penny (in the sense of pound). Sixpenny, eightpenny, and tenpenny nails are nails of three sizes. A thousand of the first will weigh six pounds; of the second, eight pounds; of the third, ten pounds.
   Penny sometimes expresses the duodecimal part, as tenpenny and elevenpenny silver- meaning silver 10- 12ths and 11-12ths fine.

“One was to be tenpenny, another eleven, another sterling silver.”- Weidenfeld: Secrets of the Adepts.
Penny (A) (Anglo-Saxon, penning or penig). For many hundred years the unit of money currency, hence pening-monegre (a money-changer). There were two coins so named, one called the greater = the fifth part of a shilling, and the other called the less = the 12th part of a shilling.
   My penny of observation (Love's Labour's Lost, iii. 1). My pennyworth of wit; my natural observation or mother-wit. Probably there is some pun or confusion between penetration and “penny of observation” or “penn'orth of wit.”
   A penny for your thoughts. See Heywood's Dialogue, pt. ii. 4. (See Pennyworth.)

Penny-a-liner (A). A contributor to the local newspapers, but not on the staff. At one time these collectors of news used to be paid a penny a line, and it was to their interest to spin out their report as much as possible. The word remains, but is now a misnomer.

Penny Dreadfuls Penny sensational papers, which delight in horrors.

Penny-father (A). A miser, a penurious person, who “husbands” his pence.

“Good old penny-father was glad of his liquor.”
Pasquil: Jests (1629).
Penny Gaff (A). A theatre the admission to which is one penny. Properly a gaff is a ring for cock-fighting, a sensational amusement which has been made to yield to sensational dramas of the Richardson type. (Irish, gaf, a hook.)

Penny Hop (A). A rustic dancing club, in which each person pays a penny to the fiddler. In towns, private dancing parties were at one time not uncommon, the admission money at the doors being one penny.

Penny Lattice-house (A). A low pothouse. Lattice shutters are a public-house sign, being the arms of Fitzwarren, which family, in the days of the Henrys, had the monopoly of licensing vintners and publicans.

Penny Pots Pimples and spots on the tippler's face, from the too great indulgence in penny pots of beer.

Penny Readings Parochial entertainments, consisting of readings, music, etc., for which one penny admission is charged.

Penny Saved (A). A penny saved is twopence gained. In French, “Un centime épargné en vant deux.”
   Well, suppose a man asks twopence a piece for his oranges, and a haggler obtains hundred at a penny a piece, would he save 200 pence by his bargain? If so, let him go on spending, and he will soon become a millionaire. Or suppose, instead of paying £1,000 for a bad bet, I had not wagered any money at all, would this have been worth £2,000 to me?

  By PanEris using Melati.

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