main roads of the Roman Empire, and the stations of the Roman army. The Itinerary of Peutinger (Tabula Peutingeriana) is also an invaluable document of ancient geography, executed A.D. 393, in the reign of Theodosius the Great, and hence called sometimes the Theodosian Table.

Its did not come into use till the seventeenth century. Dean Trench points out that Chatterton betrayed his forgeries by the line "Life and its goods I scorn," but the word its was not in use till several centuries after the death of the monk to whom the words are ascribed. In 1548 it was used for its.

"The loue and deuotion towardes God also hath it infancie, and hath it commyng forward in growth of age." (1548.)
I'van The Russian form of John, called Juan in Spain, Giovanni in Italian.
   Ivan the Terrible. Ivan IV. of Russia, infamous for his cruelties, but a man of great energy. He first adopted the title of czar. (1529, 1533-1584.)

I'vanhoe (3 syl.). Sir Wilfred, knight of Ivanhoe, is the disinherited son of Cedric of Rotherwood. He is first introduced as a pilgrim, in which guise he enters his father's hall, where he meets Rowena. He next appears as Desdichado, the "Disinherited Knight," in the grand tournament where he vanquishes all opponents. At the intercession of King Richard he is reconciled to his father, and ultimately marries Rowena, his father's ward. Rebecca, the Jew's daughter, to whom he had shown many acts of kindness, was in love with him.
   Sir Walter Scott took the name from the village of Ivanhoe, or Ivinghoe, in Bucks, a line in a old rhymed proverb - "Tring, King, and Ivanhoe" - having attracted his attention.

Ivanovitch A lazy, good-natured person, the national impersonation of the Russians as a people, as John Bull is of the English, Brother Jonathan of the Americans, Jean Crapaud of the French, and Cousin Michael of the Germans.

Ivories Teeth; dice.
   To show one's ivories. To display one's teeth.
   To wash one's ivories. To rinse the mouth; to drink.

Ivory Gate of Dreams (The). Dreams which delude pass through this gate, those which come true pass through the Gate of Horn. This fancy depends upon two puns: ivory in Greek is elephas, and the verb elephairo means "to cheat with empty hopes;" the Greek for horn is keras, and the verb karanoo means "to accomplish."

"Sunt geminæ somni portæ: quarum altera fertur
Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus umbris;
Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto;
Sed falsa ad coelum mittunt insomnia manes."
Virgil: Æneid, vl. 894-897.
Ivory Palaces are not unfrequently mentioned in the Old Testament. Thus (Psalm xlv. 8), "All thy garments smell of myrrh, aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces;" in 1 Kings xxii. 39 we read that Ahab built "an ivory house;" and in Amos iii. 15 we read, "I will smite the winter-house with the summer-house, and the houses of ivory." Lady Mary Wortley Montague, in her Letters, speaks of the ivory fittings of the harem of the Kahya's palace at Adrianople. She says, "Its winter apartments are wainscotted with inlaid work of mother-of-pearl and ivory of different colours" (vol. ii. p. 161-162).

"The ceilings of the Eastern houses are of mosaic work, and for the most part of ivory, like those superb Talaar of Persia." - St. John Chardin.
Ivory Shoulder Demeter ate the shoulder of Pelops, served up by Tantalos; so when the gods restored the body to life, Demeter supplied the lacking shoulder with one of ivory.

"Not Pelops' shoulder whiter than her hands.'
W. Browne: Britannia's Pastorals, ii. 3.
Ivy (Old English, ifig). Dedicated to Bacchus from the notion that it is a preventive of drunkenness. But whether the Dionysian ivy is the same plant as that which we call ivy is doubtful, as it was famous for its golden berries, and was termed chryso-carpos.

Ivy (in Christian art). Symbol of everlasting life, from its remaining continually green. An ivy wreath was the prize of the Isthmian games, till it was superseded by a pine garland. The plant was sacred to Bacchus and Osiris.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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