League (The), a league formed at Péronne in 1576, to prevent the accession of Henri IV. to the throne of France, because he was of the reformed religion. This league was mainly due to the Guises. It is occasionally called “The Holy League;” but the “Holy League” strictly so called is quite another thing, and it is better not to confound different events by giving them the same name. (See League, Holy.)

The Achæan League (B. C. 281-146). The old league consisted of the twelve Achæan cities confederated for self-defence from the remotest times. The league properly so called was formed against the Macedonians.

The Ætolian League, formed some three centuries B.C., when it became a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achæan League.

The Grey League (1424), called Lia Grischa or Graubünd, from the grey homespun dress of the confederate peasants, the Grisons, in Switzerland. This league combined with the League Caddee (1401) and the League of the Ten Jurisdictions (1436) in a perpetual alliance in 1471. The object of these leagues was to resist domestic tyranny.

The Hanse or Hanseatic League (1241–1630), a great commercial confederation of German towns, to protect their merchandise against Baltic pirates, and defend their rights against German barons and princes. It began with Hamburg and Lubeck, and was joined by Bremen, Bruges, Bergen, Novogorod, London, Cologne, Brunswick, Danzig; and, afterwards by Dunkerque, Anvers, Ostend, Dordrecht, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, etc.; still later by Calais, Rouen, St. Malo, Bordeaux, Bayonne, Marseilles, Barcelona, Seville, Cadiz, and Lisbon; and lastly by Messina, Naples, etc.; in all eighty cities.

The Holy League. Several leagues are so denominated, but that emphatically so called is the league of 1511 against Louis XII., formed by pope Julius II., Ferdinand “the Catholic,” Henry VIII., the Venetians, and the Swiss. Gaston de Foix obtained a victory over the league at Ravenna in 1512, but died in the midst of his triumph.

The Solemn League (1638), formed in Scotland against the episcopal government to the Church.

League Caddee (The), or Ligue de la Maison de Dieu (1401), a confederation of the Grisons for the purpose of resisting domestic tyranny. (See League, Grey.)

League of Augsburg (1686), a confederation of the house of Austria with Sweden, Saxony, Bavaria, the circles of Swabia and Franconia, etc., against Louis XIV. This league was the beginning of that war which terminated in the peace of Ryswick (1698).

League of Cambray (1508), formed against the republic of Venice by the emperor Maximilian I., Louis XII. of France, Ferdinand “the Catholic,” and pope Julius II.

League of Ratisbonne (1524), by the catholic powers of Germany against the progress of the Reformation.

League of Smalkalde (December 31, 1530), the protestant states of Germany leagued against Charles Quint. It was almost broken up by the victory obtained over it at Mühlberg in 1547.

League of Wurtzburg (1610), formed by the catholic states of Germany against the “Protestant Union” of Hall. Maximilian I. of Bavaria was at its head.

League of the Beggars (1560), a combination formed against the Inquisition in Flanders.

League of the Cities of Lombardy (1167), under the patronage of pope Alexander III., against Frederick Barbarossa emperor of Germany. In 1225, the cities combined against Frederick II. of Germany.

League of the Public Weal (Ligue du Bien Public), 1464, a league between the dukes of Burgundy, Brittany, Bourbon, and other princes, against Louis XI. of France.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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