Thus we are distinctly told that the crude metal, after treatment in the gutter, is made into malleable iron or steel, by puddling in the ordinary manner, and not by the action of the steam, air, or vapour of water blown through it. In evidence of this I give another quotation from Mr. Martien's printed specification.

In treating the liquid or melted metal as stated, either as it directly comes from a blast furnace or from a finery fire, it is left in the form of pigs, plates, or in a granulated state, as may be desired; or it may be conducted after such treatment directly and without material loss of heat to a reverbatory or other furnace or furnaces, and them subjected to intense heat and manipulation, and speedily converted into balls of malleable metal of iron and steel.

Martien was under the impression that he could, in part, supersede the ordinary finery fire, and render the crude iron more suitable for puddling, there being no new method or process of making malleable iron or steel described, or even in the most remote manner suggested, in this patent. In fact, in the last quotation, he tells us "the metal is left in the form of pigs, plates (that is, I presume, finer's plate metal), or in a granulated state, and if it be desired to make it into malleable iron or steel, the old process of puddling must be resorted to.

Possibly -- I think probably -- we should never have heard any more of Mr. Martien's invention had it not been for my Cheltenham paper of August, 1856. This paper, as we have seen, was fertile in suggestions to many would-be inventors. Amongst them in the records of the Patent Office we find, on September 16th, 1856, the applications for two patents connected with the manufacture of steel; one of them was taken out in the name of Robert Mushet and the other by Joseph Gilbert Martien. Six days later -- that is, on September 22nd -- two other patents were applied for by Robert Mushet, all four of the patents named being for the use of manganese in the manufacture of steel; and therefore they were, intentionally or otherwise, obstructive patents from my point of view. It must be remembered that these patents were applied for in the fourth and fifth weeks immediately following the reading of my paper at Cheltenham, at which period the whole iron trade of this country was in a state of extreme agitation and excitement in reference to my invention, which, at that moment, it was believed would effect a complete revolution in the iron industry.

Now, at this period, hundreds of men in Sheffield knew perfectly well that cast steel made from iron that had been smelted with mineral fuel was so much improved in quality by being alloyed with manganese, that such iron was never made into cast steel in Sheffield without the addition thereto of oxide of manganese and carbonaceous matter in the form of powder, which was put into the crucible or vessel in which cast steel was made. I have, however, already dwelt at length on Heath's invention, and have shown that his patents, which had expired long years before, had given to the world the free use of manganese in steel-making, and that its general application was a matter of universal knowledge.

Mr. Mushet's specification commences, "Now know ye that I, the said Robert Mushet, do hereby declare the nature of my said invention, and in what manner the same is to be performed to be particularly described in and by the following statement. When cast iron, including grey and white pig iron and refined metal, has been decarburised or purified by forcing air through or amongst its particles, either in the manner described in the specification of Letters Patent, dated the l5th day of September, 1855, granted to Joseph Gilbert Martien, or in any other convenient manner, with a view to convert it into malleable iron, etc." Now, it is clear that Martien did not blow air through molten iron, in order to convert it into malleable iron, but simply in order to prepare such cast iron for the after-process of puddling, by which process, and not by the air blown through it, it was to be converted into malleable iron. Further, any addition of pitch and oxide of manganese could not possibly convert into steel iron treated in the manner described in this patent of Martien so specifically referred to. There was at that time no commercially-known process of converting pig iron direct into malleable iron or steel, while still retaining its fluidity, except that patented by me, to which alone Mr. Mushet's patent could possibly be applied.

Any attempt to carry into practice Mr. Mushet's process, in the manner described in his patent of September 16th, 1856, would have been attended with great danger, and failure must have inevitably followed. In

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