full right to use such alloyed cast-iron for making steel by my process; and by my patent, bearing date October 17th, 1855, I had the right, after the blowing process, to recarburise, or alter the state of carburation of, the converted metal by the addition thereto of molten pig-iron: a right of which no subsequent patent could deprive me.

This patent of Mr. Reynolds' started a host of imitators, who all laid claim to improve iron for steel making, or to improve steel when made, by alloying it with manganese. In case any of my readers should desire to see how these very "numerous inventors " tried to claim this valuable material for their own special use and advantage, I give below a list of most of them for easy reference to their respective specifications.


Reynolds, Wm., A.D. 1799. "For a New Method of Preparing Iron for Conversion thereof into Steel." Oxide of manganese is to be mixed, either with the materials for making the pig, or cast iron, or with the cast iron, to be converted into malleable iron, in the Finery, Bloomery, Puddling Furnace or otherwise.

John Wilkinson, A.D. 1808. "Making Pig, or Cast Metal, from the Ore for the Manufacture into Bar Iron equal to Russian or Swedish," by manganese, or ores containing manganese in addition to iron-stone.

John Thompson, A.D. 1819. "Extracting Iron from Ore." The inventor smelts a mixture of iron ore and oxide of manganese.

Charles Schafhautl, A.D. 1835. "Manufacturing Malleable Iron," by using oxide of manganese.

Josiah Marshall Heath, A.D. 1839. "Manufacture of Iron and Steel." Manufacture of cast steel in a furnace with deficient fuel; uses oxide of manganese. "Carburet of manganese may be used in any process for the conversion of iron into cast steel."

William Vickers, A.D. 1839. "Manufacture of Cast Steel." Wrought-iron borings and scraps are melted with oxide of manganese and carbon in crucibles to produce cast steel.

Charles Low, A.D. 1844. "Manufacture of Iron and Steel." Uses oxide of manganese and charcoal in pots.

John D. M. Stirling, A.D. 1846. "Alloys and Metallic Compounds, and Welding the same to other Metals." Molten cast iron and malleable iron and metallic manganese are used.

Moses Poole, A.D. 1847. "Manufacture of Cast Metal, Iron and Steel." Chromate of iron, oxide of manganese, etc., are used.

Alexander Parkes, A.D. 1847. "Manufacture of Metals containing Iron and Steel." To improve iron, some metallic manganese may be melted with it, etc.

John D. M. Stirling, A.D. 1848. "Manufacture of Iron and Metallic Compounds." Molten iron is mixed with 5 to 30 per cent. of scrap and one per cent. of manganese in a reverberatory furnace.

Josiah Marshall Heath, A.D. 1848. "Manufacture of Cast Steel." Granulated de-oxydised pure iron, mixed with manganese and carbon.

Richard A. Brooman, A.D. 1853. "Producing Castings in Malleable Iron." Manganese is used with wrought scrap in crucibles with carbon.

J. Leon Talabot, A.D. 1853. "Manufacture of Cast Steel." Blister steel is melted with oxide of manganese.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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