want, which scientific inquiry into the relative proportion of the elements present in spiegeleisen would have at once condemned.

Before dismissing Mr. Hewitt's report, it will be Interesting to briefly notice what he had to say to his Government as to the carrying out of the Bessemer process both in Sweden and in Austria.

Under the head of Sweden, Mr. Hewitt made the following remarks :--


An examination of the specimens of Bessemer steel from Sweden in the Exposition shows us that the metal there produced is of a far superior character to that made in England, and naturally leads to inquiry as to the cause of the difference, and whether we may hope to attain the same success in the United States. First, we observe coils of wire of all sizes, down to the very finest, such as No. 47, or even smaller. This they have not been able regularly to produce in England. In the next place we notice a good display of fine cutlery, and the writer is informed by a competent authority that this metal answers so well for this purpose that it is now used almost to the exclusion of any other. This statement is corroborated by the fact that in the miscellaneous classes of the Swedish department, where cutlery occurs not as an exhibition of steel, but merely as a display of workmanship by other parties in the same manner as other articles of merchandise, cases of razors are exhibited with the mark of the kind of steel of which they are made stamped or etched upon them as usual, and these are all "Bessemer," but from a variety of different works, viz.:-- Högbo, Carlsdal, Österby and Söderfors. The ore used in Sweden for producing iron for the Bessemer process is exclusively magnetic, and of a very pure quality. An analysis of a mixture of those used for the iron employed at the Fagersta works before roasting gives the following composition:-

Carb. acid . . . . . 8.00
Silicium . . . . . 17.35
Alumina . . . . . 0.95
Lime. . . . . . 6.50
. . . . . 4.35
Protoxide of manganese . . . 3.35
Magnetic oxide. . . . . 32.15
Peroxide of iron . . . .
Phosphoric acid. . . . . 0.03
All the pig made from this mixture of ores, the exhibitors state, will give a steel without the use of spiegeleisen, which is not at all red-short. The analysis of gray iron from the same works, used for the Bessemer process, is given as follows :--
 Carbon combined . .
. . 1.012
Graphite . . . . . 3.527
Silicium . . . . . 0.854
Manganese . . . . . 1.919
Phosphorus . .
. . . 0.031
Sulphur . . . . . 0.010
The analysis of mottled pig (la fonte truité), consisting of two-thirds
gray and one-third white, is--
Carbon combined . . . . 2.138
Graphite . . . . . 2.733
Silicium . . . . .
Manganese . . . . . 2.926
Phosphorus . . . . . 0.026
Sulphur . . . . . 0.015
Of each of these it is stated that the steel produced without the employment of spiegeleisen is not at all red-short (cassant à chaud). The most noticeable feature in the composition of these irons is the large percentage of manganese which they contain, together with the extremely minute proportion of sulphur.

In the process of conversion, from motives of economy, a fixed form of vessel is employed, instead of one mounted on trunnions, as in England and elsewhere. The tuyères, about nineteen in number, are placed horizontally just above the bottom of the vessel, and are inclined a little from a radial direction so as to give a rotary motion to the mass of molten metal.

Here we see that fine cutlery was exhibited in 1867 with the name "Bessemer steel" conspicuously stamped upon it as a mark of superiority. Wire of the finest numbers had been produced of superior quality, etc.; the crude metal was run direct from the blast furnace and blown to steel in a fixed converter; no spiegeleisen or re-carburation was needed. This was precisely my original mode of operating, as described in my Cheltenham paper.

Again, Mr. Abram S. Hewitt, in his report, gives an interesting account of the manufacture of Bessemer steel as represented by exhibits in the Austrian Department of the Paris Exposition of 1867, and from this account I give the following quotation:-


  By PanEris using Melati.

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