Catholicism: Christian sect which believes in papal authority and practises of ancient Church. Here mostly applied to those communities in England who refused to acknowledge the new Protestant religion.

Court: The centre of political power and patronage in England. All major decisions were taken there. All persons of note and power assembled there to get access to the Queen. It was a forum for the face- to-face contact needed for political decisions to be made. Many positions in the court, however, were honorary titles given to the Queen's favourites as financial rewards.

Court/Country Dichotomy: Theory that England was split in two different groups during this period; one centred on the court and centralized government, the other based in the country with wish to regain local power once held during the feudal age.

Gloriana: Cult image given to Elizabeth representing her as an immortal monarch. Used her unsuccessful attempts to wed to create a cult of chastity. Virtual worship of Elizabeth.

Parliament: Large council made up of the tax paying members of England. Major role was to grant the Queen taxes and loans for the running of government. Also a forum for debate and criticism. Although the Parliament was growing in power it was still subordinate to the Queen and court, relying totally on her power.

Pilgrimage of Grace: 1536-7. Widespread uprising against Henry VIII's new religious reformation. Greatest challenge to the throne in Henry's reign. Sparked off by his dissolution of the monasteries.

Privy Council: Smaller group within the court to maximise efficiency. This was the political core of government. Could act more quickly than the council as a whole because streamlined.

Protestantism: First used 1529 at Diet of Spires against the "protesting" reforming minority. Umbrella term for reformed versions of Christianity inspired by the teaching of Luther, Zwingli, Calvin and Knox. The Anglican Church was a related form of this but not so doctrinally centred. Believed in a rejection of authority of the pope, a stronger emphasis on the Bible in worship, the introduction of clerical marriage and an austere Church.

Puritanism: Exiles from Mary Tudor's regime wanted to import the "purer" form of religion they discovered abroad. Wanted a Church based on the continental Protestant models. Thought the existing Anglican Church had too many papist themes.

Rebellion of the Earl of Essex: 1600. Halfhearted attempt to overthrow the Queen after he lost her favour by not following her orders in suppressing the Tyrone rebellion in Ireland. Easily defeated and led to the execution of Essex.

Regnans in Excelsis: Papal Bull of 1570. Excommunicated Elizabeth from the Catholic Church and proclaimed her a heretic. Made it religious duty of all Catholics to try and undermine her regime.

The Rising of the Northern Earls: 1569. The most serious uprising in Elizabeth's reign. Rebels lead by earls of Westmoreland and Northumberland against new religious practises. Also complained about the Queen being led by "evil councillors". Suppressed by troops led by Lord Sussex.

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