that either alluded to or directly supported Roman Catholicism, regularly calling Parliament and responding to its grievances, not taxing the nation without parliamentary approval, appointing ministers who were competent and held their office by merit, that these ministers could in some way be answerable to Parliament. It was in response to these objectives and concerns and with hindsight of the experience of the seventeenth century that in 1688-89 Parliament took its opportunity to secure its position as a pivotal element of the constitution and an active participant in the government of the kingdom. The Revolution of 1688 that James II's replacements William III and Mary acceded to transformed the position of Parliament. However, this became so not because of any written guarantee or legislation that directly stated the new position of Parliament - it worked because of the settlement of the financial problem the Stuart kings had struggled against, the subtle and unwritten guarantee that MPs formulated to ensure parliaments would be needed by the Crown.

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