attempted to impose conformity regardless of the King's demands for a gradual approach. In event, Ireland could not be brought to rule by gradually or forcefully imposing Protestantism. At the very least however, James' approach kept the Pope from interfering in British political-confessional affairs (and a repeat of the excommunication Elizabeth I had been served with). In particular James to an extent appreciated the acute sensitivity to confessional matters among the Irish social spectrum and thus closed it off completely from the Arminians [10].

[10. Arminians: An inaccurate label attached by Puritans to the Anglican High Churchment of the early- to-mid seventeenth century, particularly in the Caroline Church. The most outstanding of these men were William Laud and Lancelot Andrewes. The name originated in the writings and beliefs of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, who was condemned by the Dutch Protestants in 1617 at the Synod of Dort.

Under Laud elements of doctrine and worship typical to the Catholic Church in England (removed by Calvinists during the sixteenth century) were revived. These stressed ceremony in worship, vestments and decoration of churches, and regulated sermons (in contrast to the informal and impromptu lectures and sermons of the Puritans). Theologically English Arminians, or Laudians, upheld the doctrine of Free Will - that is man's fate was determinable, he could reject or accept God's grace - on contrast to the Calvinist belief in Predestination. Furthermore Arminians favoured uniformity and discipline exercised by bishops was a fundamental component of Church government and supported the authority of the monarchy.

Charles I promoted Laud, a crown 'favourite', and his Arminian doctrines rapidly in the Church of England. This entailed Arminian appointments to senior Church offices (i.e. archbishoprics and bishoprics) and the imposition of Laud's vision of forms of worship. Thus this minority group of Anglicans ascended to a dominant position very quickly. However the effects of this policy were to prove detrimental to royal authority in England and Scotland.]

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