used in affirmative statements, but much commoner in Miss Austen’s time. Examples which have an archaic flavour are : E 162 (Mr. Perry) ‘is not to be giving away his time’. M P 311 If Mr. Crawford would but go … and take his sister with him, as he was to do. E 62 ‘She is not to pay for the offence of others’; 75 ‘we are not to be addressing our conduct to fools’; 159 ‘this particular circumstance, of her being to come here so soon’. Cf. Johnson’s ‘we are to be as rude as we please’.

Plural verb used inaccurately under the influence of a plural substantive or series of substantives : S S 101 His want of spirits, of openness, and of consistency, were … attributed … P P 189 His sense of (&c.) were dwelt on ; 283 ‘ nothing but love, flirtation, and officers, have been in her head ’.

Complementary infinitive after verbs of perceiving, fearing, &c., with a direct object : P P 326 suspicions which … she had … dreaded to be just. M P 361 ‘I look upon the Frasers to be about as unhappy as most other married people’; 468 consider a man … to be providing.

Infinitive (usually passive), dependent on a participle or adjective : S S 27 a satisfaction … attempted to be concealed ; 261 necessary to be done. M P 135 a character … difficult to be well represented ; 284 this must be learned to be endured (this would now bear a different meaning) ; 371 the point attempted to be proved. E 93 this (visit) … might be hoped to pass away in unsullied cordiality ; 249 the space … was now endeavoured to be made out quite enough for ten. M P 381 which he had been promised to have done for him.

Infinitive, where we now use the verbal noun in -ing, after certain participles and adjectives : M P 396 unused to confer favours. E 143 persisting to place her happiness in … ; 148 ‘Equal … to act up to it’. N A 221 ‘misled … to suppose’.

Past participle in the form of the past tense : E 124 when he had drank his tea. M P 52 wine drank ; 380 an acknowledgement that he (Mr. Price) had quite forgot her ; 435 ‘I had actually began folding my letter’.

Participle without final -n : broke is frequent in dialogue, e. g. P P 229, E 393 (where Emma is the speaker). M P 440 ‘spoke’ [Mrs. Price].

Being with another present participle : S S 182 ‘their being going to be married’. N A 157 being dancing with him. P P 254 a smile, at his being now seeking the acquaintance. M P 73 ‘after being stooping among the roses’.

Active present participle in passive sense (strictly the gerund, with omission of prepositional a-) : S S 215 at what coach-maker’s the new carriage was building ; 233 the improvements … which were making ; 225 ‘The inclosure … now carrying on’. M P 130 was … forming into a curtain by the housemaids ; 447 the knowledge of what must be enduring.

Participle with possessive pronoun, with the same reference as the subject of the sentence : S S 227 ‘by her taking so much notice of you, she has given you a sort of claim’. P P 261 Since her being at Lambton, she had heard that Miss Darey was exceedingly proud ; 246 had leisure to wonder at her being where she was.

Participles in -ing with adjectival sense : S S 250 Elinor was neither musical, nor affecting to be so. N A 121 became more and more desponding. E 114 She could not be complying, she dreaded being quarrelsome.

Past participles (intransitive) with the verb to be : this is very common, e. g. was returned, are arrived, was come, was grown, were become, had been gone, am got, and even (M P 388) was sailed.

Preposition at the end of a sentence, in violation of the eighteenth-century canon—not infrequent, and not in dialogue only : M P 390 Much of all this, Fanny could not but be sensible of ; 410 ‘I am considering

  By PanEris using Melati.

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