Notre Dame de Paris was published by Hugo in 1831 and is one of his many historical novels, set in fifteenth century Paris. The archdeacon of Notre Dame, a certain Claude Frollo, falls in lust with Esmerelda - a gypsy dancer - who is much admired by the crowds of the city. At his instruction, Quasimodo, the grotesque hunchbacked bell-ringer of Notre Dame who he has befriended, kidnaps her. Her rescue is brought about by Phoebus de Chateaupers (Captain of the Royal Archers) and she falls mistakenly in love with his bravery when he is in reality something of a rogue and a braggart. Frollo follows Esmerelda to a meeting with Phoebus who he satbs before her leaving her to be sentenced to death for the murder. Quasimodo has become her effective slave due to a single act of kindness and takes her to sanctuary in the cathedral. Adventures follow including a band of gypsies attempt to save Esmerelda from the cathedral, the disguised Frollo’s persuasion of the girl to leave with him and the brief return of Esmerelda to her mother. The sad finale involves the Archers’ fierce arrest of Esmerelda, her hanging and Quasimodo’s wretched misery at the loss of the girl. There is some retribution for Frollo however, and the story, though not always following history very closely, presents a vivid picture of medieval Paris.