The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit was published serially 1843-4 and is a transitional novel by Dickens, one that stands on the border between his early comic novels and the later sombre social critiques. It is the story of Martin, the grandson of old Martin Chuzzlewit who is rich but has become misanthropic due to the greed of his kin. He is looked after by Mary Graham, an orphan, who he has brought up for that purpose and who he sees as his daughter. Young Martin is initially selfish but through hard labour and the positive and cheerful influence of his servant Tapley becomes decent. Martin falls for Mary but his father is suspicious of his self-concerned nature and gets him dismissed from his position to be the student of the hypocritical architect Mr Pecksniff. The novel is broken up into segments by young Martinís voyage to seek his fortune in America where he is employed by a fraudulent company and falls ill (this part of the novel being criticised in the US for its inaccurate and stereotypical portraits of American life). His return to England signals a less comical appraisal of the unpleasant figures such as the murderous Jonas Chuzzlewit and Tigg Montague who are now portrayed as simply evil. His grandfather who brings him back into favour realises Martinís reinvention as a good individual and resolution ensues. So begins the second phase of Dickensí writing.